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About Latticino

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    Senior Member

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    Upstate NY
  • Interests
    Blacksmithing, bladesmithing, glassblowing, restoring and playing antique flutes. HLG and boomerangs, recumbent bicycles, sea kayaking, white water canoeing, reading SF/Fantasy

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  1. I'm with aus on this one. How the heck did he get back down?
  2. Latticino

    What is the difference between k26 and k23?

    The density, insulation value and maximum temperature rating are different between the two. You can get details from any refractory brick manufacturer's website. In addition, from my experience, the K23 brick is more fragile. Personally I'm not a huge fan of brick forges. For a gas fired forge you need a flame impingement face that can withstand up to 3,000 deg. F, IMHO, and neither of these will do it. They also don't have as good insulation value per unit thickness as high temperature insulating blanket. If I had to use brick for a forge I'd probably go with an inner liner of K26 (2"), then an outer layer of K23 (2"), with a split hard firebrick floor (1", preferably High alumina). Or just a 4" thickness of K26, though the insulation value wouldn't be quite as good. If the former design, be sure to stagger the seams.
  3. Nice job drawing out the chisel. Looks like you got a lot of length out of it, but I have to be honest, it doesn't look like you have enough width to get a sushi knife out of that to me. You will have a bunch of grinding to do to get your profile refined enough, and in the shot above the measuring tape there are a ton of hammer marks to grind out (I can't tell if you forged them down in the final photo due to scale). In any case you will also have to deal with scale removal, warping during heat treatment, and potential decarb from working the billet so long. If nothing else, I would suggest you make a concerted effort to keep your forge in reduction when you go to heat treat. If it were me I'd consider making two knives out of this billet, possibly dividing them at the 9" mark. The section left with the tang would make a nice 6" kitchen knife and the remainder could be sculpted into a lovely little paring knife. 1045 may be a little low in carbon for a good sushi knife (if you chisel is indeed that low in carbon, I would expect at least 60 points). I think that more typical selections would be for a higher carbon steel that will hold an edge extremely well, but be a little less tough (1095 for example). Good luck with whatever you decide to do.
  4. Latticino

    My first sword build underway

    Very nice job grinding the bevels. Congrats on your success with the heat treatment cycle.
  5. Hawks were traditionally made from brass, wrought iron, low carbon steel, and medium carbon steel. Sometimes they had high carbon bits welded in, or were even made completely of high carbon steel (for example, rasp hawks). It all depends on what your eventual use will be. Then there is size. In my opinion 2# is about the upper edge for a hawk, much larger and you have an axe. Some might say that even 2# is too much. Not sure where you read that HF ball peens are a good choice for stock. In my experience their products vary quite a bit and you could just as easily get a mild steel hammer with a case hardened face as anything useful. If you plan on ending up with a cutting tool, you would most likely be better served with garage/yard sale or flea market finds of an older hammer. If used for throwing you don't necessarily need a hardened bit. If you are going to be chopping wood or separating out a kill you might need something that will hold a better edge. Then it is all about what process you are going to be using to modify the hammers to a hawk. I feel that when modifying hammers into hawks the eye should be drifted open to a proper larger taper so the haft can be friction fit from "above" rather than put in with a wedge (like a hammer or many axes). If you are going to forge out the hawk from a hammer, you should certainly heat treat it (which includes all aspects of heat treatment, not just quenching to harden). You will likely want to end up with a hawk with a hardened bit/poll and soft eye with overall fairly small grain structure. This is not always easy to achieve with mystery metal as a beginner.
  6. Not sure I follow you here. With a mechanical hammer of this type, shouldn't a longer stroke hit harder, but not as quickly? I think Thomas is on to something with the snap, more a function of the spring tension and stroke as far as I know.
  7. Latticino

    My 1st Propane Forge Build

    Extremely impressive first forge. Now you just have to throw on an idler circuit and PID temperature controller with thermocouple in ceramic well and you will have all the toys (well except a pilot light and UV sensor...). Hope it doesn't end up being too large. You may find that the silicon carbide shelf doesn't do as well as expected with flux contact (I assume you have at least 2" of blanket insulation under the shelf). A good heavy coating of kiln wash may save it. Be sure to go slow on your first firings to dry it out thoroughly. The doors are very cool, but you may find that the light fire brick doesn't hold up, especially with the screwed connection to the steel framing and the expansion/contraction of the system in use. Still this is far advanced of what I've seen for a first forge in the past.
  8. For the one I built I actually had to put a limit on the coil energizing time in the control loop (I have an older West Controller that is a bit more configurable than some of the modern controls) to avoid having the elements burn out from overheating. I never run mine up above 1650 deg. F. I think you have to be careful with standard nichrome elements above a certain range as they will start to droop, get brittle, burn out... over a certain temperature. Hopefully your brick grooves will help with this. My first set of coils was just recovered from a decommissioned electric duct heater, and were only pinned into the fiberboard walls with some additional nichrome wire. Worked well up to around 1200 deg, but when I started using it for 1650 and tried to increase the duty cycle they burned out pretty quickly. I now am using some coils reclaimed from an old ceramic kiln, and the ceramic coil channel holders work much better (though they supply more thermal mass as well). My heat treat oven is lined with two layers of fiberboard (1.5" of high temperature board and 2" of low temperature board insulation), so the heating characteristics will be very different than yours. However the rapid initial heating and slower heating as you approach temperature can have two sources. Of course the heating speed is directly proportional to the temperature difference between the coils and the interior of your oven. As the temperature of the oven approaches more closely the energized coil temperature the physics of the situation indicate that heat transfer will slow. The other potential source can be the PID loop feedback algorithm for your controller. Most of these are configured to avoid overshoot, so they reduce the output of the coils (either by cycling or with SCR) as the feedback signal indicates the temperature is closer to the setpoint. Other than to your electric bill, and for the circuit wiring, it shouldn't matter whether you are running at higher or lower voltage. I wouldn't be surprised if the coil wire thickness has some relationship as well (as it will be carrying more amperage).
  9. Latticino

    T Burner Illustrated Directions

    Not sure where you are getting this, or if it is only for a specific system configuration or type of fluid. Not to get too deep into it here, but classically the difference between laminar and turbulent flow has to do with the fluid stream's Reynolds number (Laminar flow at Re < 2,100 and turbulent flow above Re 4,000, with the Reynolds number being the proportion between inertial forces and viscous forces in the fluid stream). Of course this is only for fully developed flow, so perhaps this is where you are getting your flow passage length info from. Initially for even very rough pipe fluid flow will start out laminar until it reaches a critical distance. I'm not 100% certain why this is important in a gas orifice, as the friction coefficient is often lower for turbulent flow for a given average fluid velocity, and the entry and exit conditions probably impose more significant losses then the relatively short orifice barrel. I'm sure the free air jet dynamics and the induction process for the high velocity gas pulling in the combustion air differ depending on whether the gas jet flow is laminar or turbulent. However, I will bet anything that once the gas exits the orifice into the induction section it goes turbulent in any case, and the average velocity of the gas jet, relative geometry of that jet and the mixing tube and air inlets has a lot more to do with a burner's function then whether the jet is turbulent or laminar inside the orifice. Still I could certainly be wrong and am happy to be better educated.
  10. Latticino

    Garden tool

    As far as failure modes, in my experience it is the shaft-to-blade joint that is the potential issue rather than the edge, but perhaps you have excessively rocky ground. If you are going to make it yourself, the socket or tang/ferrule design will likely be as critical, if not more so, than steel selection. How are you at forge welding? The truck leaf spring that Das has suggested can be great for the blade, but will be a ton of work to forge down. Most of these springs seem to be in the 5160 range, and will be quite tough to forge weld to themselves. If you go that route I would recommend either a tang and ferrule construction or forge welding on a mild steel socket. This is not a beginner project.
  11. Latticino

    Silver Bottlecap

    As I understand it there are a number of different ways you can make a hollow pommel cap from your reclaimed silver snuff tin, to some extent depending on your experience with the material and training in jewelry techniques. I assume you don't plan on having any remnant of the original snuff tin in the final product, otherwise you become very limited with available options. Typically fine silver is worked in an annealed state, not hot. It will work harden as it gets forged, so regular annealing will be required. It will also oxidize and either abrasive removal of oxides or pickling in a weak acid are typical. Most likely a jewelry course for beginners would be a good start. Some options (as I see it): You can anneal the material and try to dapp it into a female cavity until it starts to wrinkle, then raise it up over a male post of the correct size You can melt it down and cast it into a form (difficult for thin walls) You can flatten it out completely and construct a capped cylinder by cutting the sheet metal base and cylinder walls out with a jeweler's saw then hard soldering the parts together. You can flatten it out and form or cut a disk out then attempt to spin the form on a lathe You can anneal the original and attempt to press it into a form using a male and female die with an arbor press (as you were describing). Most likely this will either tear the thin silver, wrinkle it badly, or get it stuck in the tooling (or all three).
  12. Latticino

    T Burner Illustrated Directions

    Start by reducing jet. Hopefully you have an adjustable regulator and have already turned that down to try to avoid the "lift off" (that is a symptom of the air gas mixture volume flowrate producing a terminal velocity that exceeds the flame front burning speed). If lowering that flow rate with the regulator won't help, a reduced MIG tip diameter is your best bet. You might even need to go further down than .025, I don't' recall what Frosty recommends for a 1/2" burner tube.
  13. Latticino

    Looking for a book - Damascus/Pattern

    While I hesitate to recommend a book I haven't thoroughly studied, I believe that this is what you are searching for.
  14. Latticino

    T Burner Illustrated Directions

    I suggest you go to a plumbing supply store and get the correct reducing TEE fitting. If you can't get one there, or order online from the many easily available sources, you might be able to limp by using a 1 x 1 x 1 TEE fitting with a 1 x 3/4 bushing that has been properly reamed out on the business end to provide smooth flow at the transition. This is a good, relatively bulletproof design for a simple forge burner, but you have to use the right materials and assemble to the tolerances expected (especially the concentricity of the MIG tip with the mixing tube).
  15. I've only used an induction forge once for a couple of minutes, so hope you will bear with another basic question on your setup. OK, just to be sure I understand: The fan pulls the air in from the "front" of the assembly, through the radiator and discharges at the "back" of the assembly, below the table where the heater sits. Won't using the forge eventually heat up the coil cooling fluid, then the air coming off the radiator? Will this heated air continue to work well to cool the motor and not heat up your fluid reservoir? Needless to say, it is your unit and seems to be heating metal well for you as is. If it were mine I would consider rotating the induction unit 180 on the stand and setting the fan to blow through the radiator discharging the heated air away from the other components and the user, but that is up to you. I don't have a good feel for how much heat these units generate, so this may be a moot point.