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Found 27 results

  1. Hi all, This is my first post on I forge iron so please be gentle! I am pretty new to blacksmithing but I have been machining and making things for some time. I have been putting a few bits for blacksmithing and I was made aware of some big lumps of steel that were being scrapped so (despite the fact that the blacksmithing skills don't warrant it yet) I decided to turn them into a 55kg power hammer (120lb) Hope you like the video. I have a few other videos related to machining and blacksmithing if you are interested. I look forward to joining in the I forge iron conversations rather than just lurking! You guys have already taught me a lot and I hope I can add a little bit in to the mix.
  2. I am in need of an Anvil. I'm not looking to go and spend $400-$500 on an Anvil so im planning on going to my Local Junk yard as well as the Local U-Pull Place. Unless I get lucky to find a piece of RR Track or even an Anvil at a decent price, what could i look for to accomplish getting the right amount of Bounce with my hammer (32oz Estwing) as well as having enough Girth to allow for full strength striking. Im still Learning (Self Taught) so im not 100% concerned with having a Pritchel or Hardy Hole (unless i should be concerned with having one). Anything will help at this point, Thanks.
  3. Hi I am Rocken Mike I started forging my own knifes and blades last year and I have been having a great time doing it. I have looked for power hammers and all are too big or too expensive so I checked out a few You Tube videos and built my own It works better than I was hoping for. My biggest expense was the treated 6 X 6 post I used for construction it took 2 8' X 6" X 6" treated post. Anybody with a little skill and a welder and a circular saw and a drill can build this cheep. I got the bearing from a local motor repair shop and the pillow block bearings same place. The recoil spring is from a set of porch swing springs the rest was from my shop. This was a simple build with easy to find parts with a budget in mind. I would recommend anchoring the base to the floor with the force of the hammer it wants to walk around a bit. So I will share this pictures of it completed.
  4. I have been wanting to try and make my own steel for a while. I have done quite a bit of research and I have no idea what I'm doing. As it stands now, my plan is to build a big 'ol tube out of bricks (fire or otherwise) and cover it in clay-rich mud. Let it dry for a day. Burn a small fire in it for a day. Then the next day load it with coal and have a big fire. Here is where my first question comes in. Would it be possible to use house coal instead of charcoal? J get it for free from a guy who converted his house over to natural gas instead of coal. Anyways it gets hot and it's free. So do you have to your charcoal or will house coal work. Next question is do you need to use iron or I know you can get on eBay but would it be easier to use dill spirals from my local machine shop? Or would it just burn and become garbage? Then after loading in fuel and something ferrous into the furnace and blowing in there with a shop vac. Periodically tapping for slag and peaking in there to see if it's white hot I will bust the thing up and hopefully pull out a bloom! Any answers to my questions, as well as any additional info, Is greatly appreciated. I have no idea how long to burn, how often to tap the slag, how much coal and iron to add. Every lite bit helps. -thanks (P.S. sorry for writing a novel. But it's a lot to go over)
  5. Alright so I've been wanting to make my own forge/shop (still not sure on all the proper terminology ) For quite some time but the problem is that I am usually broke most of the time is there a way for me to make my own forge and anvil for under $200 ?? if so please leave recommendations or just tell me about your experience doing so. I'm 19 and finally have a little bit of money to start my own hobby, I've heard about going to a scrap yard and finding a block of steel to use as an anvil, any recommendations on what to look for any and all advice on smithing at all will be a massive help, Thank you
  6. Hey everyone, As of late, I've been thinking of where I should set up my shop. I would use my garage, but I have my car parked in there at all times to keep it away from the North Carolina sun. My wife has no issues with me starting up my own shop, she just wants to make sure our house isn't set on fire in the process (reasonably so, as it's a rental). So, I figured since I have about another 2 years at the place, I could set up a forge outside in our backyard. We have these paver stones set into the ground, so I figured that would be a good flooring. All I need is to set up walls an a roof. As it's a rental, I don't want it attached to the house for safety reasons. We have a shed already in the back yard and don't use it for really anything, but it's made entirely out of wood and really don't want it to catch fire. Wood walls don't bother me, as I plan on screwing together 2x4s, maybe some 4x4s, and tacking some plywood to it just to keep me out of the elements. My big problem is the floor. I worry the forge, and sparks, could potentially set fire to the floor. Yes, I know that's what extinguishers are for, but I'd rather have one and not need it due to the way my shop is built than vice versa. TL;DR-- I want to build a little shack-like shop in my backyard to forge in so I don't have to use my garage. Anyone have any good ideas, or speculations on the matter? Good things to incorporate in the build? I wanna hear everyone's ideas and opinions!
  7. Hi all. Here is my design for my power hammer (Ron Kenyon simple air hammer with Larry Zoeller modifications) die. At the moment it is just the base but i run into a little problem/dilemma. The problem is with the dovetail. Currently i'm using a 50mm diameter, 20mm~ height, 60 degree, dovetail cutter. However, it's angle is way more steep then the angle i see on other power hammers die and bases (ram and anvil). It is very easy to use the dovetail i got since i only have to use one tool to do it and it is pretty fair and simple. However, i'm not sure that it is the right thing to do. How can i cut the base and die dovetail? i do not see any specific tool to do it. The die itself is relatively easy and in the "worst" case i can do it in two parts, one for the dovetail and other for the head itself with the die design. But the base is hard. I can tilt the head of the mill to cut an angle but i will have residual marking and grooves on the base of the dovetail, which i think is not very good. Any idea? Thanks, Mike
  8. Hello all, I'm a long time reader first time poster. I've been getting more into blacksmithing and have been wanting to make a better anvil than the short hunk of railroad track I've been using. I have access to about twenty feet of track and have been researching how to make a better anvil out of it. I have two ideas sketched out and was hoping for some feedback. (Sorry it's side-ways) The first idea i took from a video series It uses two sections of rail (blue) welded together and filled with weld (green) on top. A tool steel plate (pink) is welded on top and then a box (red) is welded on the bottom and filled with lead (grey) to add mass. I'd fill the section inside the rails with lead as well. From what I understand the lead would only add mass to the anvil, and would not be akin to solid steel all the way through. But I figure it can't hurt. Especially if it's cast into place and completely enclosed with steel caps so it can't rattle around and turn into a 90# dead blow mallet. My other idea is an evolution of the first. This use three sections of track (blue). Two upright sections welded at the base supporting a third placed upside-down and nested into the others. All three would be welded substantially at every point they touch. Again a box (red) would be welded on the base and all voids filled with lead (grey). The top would be filled with weld (green) and ground flat, with a tool steel plate (pink) on top. The green weld on top is exaggerated a great deal. My thought is that this second design would provide a wide surface (which maybe I don't need, given a long anvil?) supported straight down through three track webs. Though the lead in these designs doesn't rebound the way steel does, of course. I'm thinking that if it is encapsulated in steel with nowhere to go, it can't act to much like a dead blow mallet and defeat the purpose of adding all that mass. What do you all think? Will one of these combined with stout attachment to a large, heavy log-stand planted a few feet into the ground make a decent anvil? Or am I nutter? .
  9. Hello again, I've had some time to do research on different kinds of refractory material and I really like how the Kast-O-Lite 30Li sounds at first glance. I was wondering if I should coat the Kast-O-Lite in an IR refractory like ITC-100 (a little too pricey for me...) or Meeco's Red Devil 610 refractory cement (well with in my price range but unsure about efficacy). I have attached a ROUGH drawing of the front of the forge. Here is an overall idea of what I'm shooting for: Brushed stainless metal trash can for the shell (H=12" Dia=8") Hoping to do 2" of Kast-O-Lite to make a chamber of about 4" x 11" and have an exhaust port at the rear about 1.5" Hard fire brick as the floor (4.5"x9"x1ish") No refractory on these. Planning on having the burner pipe cast with the material then holding it in place with bolts. What say you fine folks? Any and all wisdom is greatly appreciated. I'm hoping to get this bad boy up to welding temps but we'll see. As always thanks for all the advice. Cheers! Big Jim (p.s. please excuse the horrible drawing in the image... I swear my 6 year old can draw better than me) Oh and I was also thinking of using the lid as a door to make the front opening smaller to retain more heat when I'm trying to weld. Kombae! Big Jim
  10. First run testing of tire hammer I built. Largely based on Spencer and anvilfire pictures and any other photos or information I could find on the web. I wanted to take advantage of everything I could and using a hub assembly off the rear of a front wheel drive vehicle provided a brake system predesigned and fitted. 62 lbs ram weight, 800 lbs in anvil section, approx. 1200 lbs total as it sits (think I need to add a little more anvil weight as the ram came in above what I had planned), 1 hp motor at full rpm would be over 300 BPM but from the video it is obviously running slower than that. Still needing adjustments and tuning but I will wait until a proper guard is in place before using. I am waiting for full testing and tuning before painting unit. Current investment just under $700 USD which includes a spool of mig wire and a new tank of shielding gas. Video
  11. Hello everyone! So we (me and my father) just tried to make one of Jarom Rush's Venturi burners (instructional video series) for our first forge (of Zoeller's design). However, I am having a few problems: 1. We couldn't find any 1 1/4" to 3/4" reducers, so we put an additional piece to decrease to the appropriate size. I assume that by deviating from the original design, we messed something up. 2. We have no adjustable PSI regulator. The one we tried to use seemed far too low for the torch to do anything; do I even need a PSI regulator? 3. When we light the flame, it doesn't seem...right. In other words, it either will not light unless we keep the flame to it, or if we turn the PSI's down the flame is too weak. Here is the video of the forge in action without the weak PSI regulator, though you should bear in mind that this is just a quickly thrown-together pile of firebricks in a frame to test the burner. If you don't want to watch Jarom's thing, I put a list of all the parts' dimensions below the video. IMG_1074.MOV PARTS LIST: Orifice hole: #57 (0.043") Nozzle: 8" length of 3/4" black iron pipe. (We cut off an extra inch afterwards because we read some forums and thought it would help ) Reducers: 1 1/4" to 1" bell reducer, followed by a 1" to 3/4" adapter - 1/4" street elbow - 1/4" union - 1/4" brass plug (drilled for the orifice) Is the #57 orifice too large, or should I go with the 0.035" MIG tip? I'd appreciate any feedback or fixes. I want to make this work so I can make a leaf spring karambit soon! ~ Royal
  12. Hand Cranked Forge Blower Build Here are the pictures of my Hand Cranked Forge Blower Build, made using a Mole Hand Grinder found on the internet (which has a 1 to 10 gear ratio), some old side pannels off a PC, a few small rivets, some protective steel corners that came with a kitchen worktop and some 12mm Aluminium angle iron. Here are the picture's of the grinder on its own. The back piece with the right angled brackets. Starting to rivet together the fan blade using 12mm aluminium angle iron. Cutting the brackets to size and drilling the holes for the rivets. After riveting the first part of the fan case together. I then ran out of rivets but decided to continue using cardboard to check everything would work alright. The rivets I needed arrived and so the rest of the fan surround went on as well as the bolts to hold the front panel on. Here is the fan blades and mounting disk, its not perfectly balanced so does 'wobble' abit but it should be fine for the amount I will be using it. And here is the 'almost' finished blower. I ran a line of bathroom chalk around the joins on the inside of the case to cover any small gaps and the bolts hold the front on tight. I don't own a hole saw large enough to make the 80cm dia hole in the front so lots of small holes with have to do for now. All that remains is to find a piece of tubing to connect the blower to the forge and then try it out. The blower seems to be providing a reasonable amount of airflow although I think it isn't recieving enough airflow from the holes in the front. Ill try to take a video when its working and post a link to this thread. This blower has probably cost me between £40-£50 and around 30-40 hours of time, I'm a pretty slower worker but when your doing something you enjoy the time really doesn't matter. Buying a hand cranked blower in okay condition would have most likely cost £60+ but I wouldn't have learned anywhere near as much as I did by doing it myself. My original inspiration came from this thread here: If anyone has any suggestions or advice, or wants to ask any questions then by all means feel free. Thanks for reading and hopefully there isn't too many pictures, I know how much you guys enjoy them. Tom
  13. Hey all, Let me preface with: 1) I am happy to find a cool forum like this, and 2) I am very new to the craft, as in, I've always wanted to, but have never done it. I have only watched about a hundred hours of video and read a bunch online. I know that does NOT take the place of actually doing it. So I have been wanting to make my own DIY homemade forge and started looking around at steel recycle, scrapyards, etc. I got turned away from a couple (they just didn't have what I needed), but they were both pointing me in the right direction. I finally, and with their help, found a place that was like, "yeah, go back and see what you can find and you can just have it." So I ended up walking away with an old brake rotor, a steel wheel (15"), and a leaf spring. "Awesome find for free!" I thought. It's a good thing I didn't bring a truck back there and didn't have to walk the 250 yards carrying everything. My question is: should I go ahead with the rotor to build my forge? Or a drum? Or the wheel? Rotor details: About 4" deep Inside diameter: 8" (mostly), 9.5" at the top 0.75" I plan on inserting it into a metal 4-wheel cart (w/ locking wheels! ) So would a brake drum be better? It would be bigger, so more coal, coke, etc. But is bigger better? I am not looking to do smaller knife stock at this point. I am looking for what would be better for all around blacksmithing; utilitarian, artistic, whatever. I don't have a drum to compare it to here, but for the wheel... Wheel details: 15" steel Many many holes Again, I plan on inserting it into a metal 4-wheel cart (w/ locking wheels!) I don't think I've ever seen a wheel forge before... My problem with the wheel, if I were to use it instead of the rotor or a drum, is that it has so many holes (side holes, not center) that are lower than what I would use for the blower section. I will include a picture and it won't probably show what I mean right here, but maybe you can see what I mean. I would have to weld in a circular plate for that part outside the hub that dips down. Here's the thing, I don't have a welder nor do I know how. I plan on get a starter welding set up in the next month so maybe this could be a good first project?? And if it's crap, oh well. Start over, no big deal. Local biz plug: a plug for the xxxxxxxx that gave me the free hardware? And not to mention the awesome customer service: xxxxxxxx link removed. xxxxxxx! I've gotten my tires there for seven years now and they xxxxxxx xxxxxxxx in not only their service, but prices! xxxx xxxx! Anyway, now they also gave me free xxxx so they definitely qualify as xxxxxxxx.... Other than being a customer, I have no affiliation with them, they just rock. What do you all think? Rotor, drum or wheel? Sorry, that was a lot longer post than I expected, but I hope it got most of my details across. IForgeIron is a G rated Family Forum. Inappropriate language will not be tolerated.
  14. Sorry if this is already posted somewhere. I've searched and can't seem to find what I'm lookin for... Question/situation is that I live close to a ceramics/pottery supply place which carries all different raw materials i.e. Alumina Hydrate, Kaolin, kiln wash, zircopax, sodium silicate, fire clay etc. literally 75-100 different raw materials. Building another forge and instead of paying small fortune shipping a bag of refractory (ideally castable) or buying ITC 100, is there a way to make a homemade batch of this stuff? I understand ITC 100 is gonna be tough to beat but even if I could make something that would be half as good that would offset the price to buy and ship online. Forge I'm building is just a small portable propane forge, lined with 2" of Kaowool. Also , talked to someone at this pottery place few times and they didn't even know what ITC 100 was ... Haha Thanks!
  15. I've been working on my own grinder for a week or so now, following Dan Comeau's BG272 plans. If I would of had more time with a CNC mill I would of built a KMG clone, but ohh well. I have one question. Due to my budget, I had to get the only used motor I could find locally. A 3HP US Motors. The only downside is that the shaft is 1-1/8" and no one sells a drive wheel with that bore. Unfortunately I do not have the stock to turn a wheel this size on the lathe. Any recommendations on how to get a drive wheel fitted on the 1-1/8" shaft? Thank you. Here's some progress.
  16. After blowing up 2 chinese air blowers on first runs I have decided to make my own air blower (hoping good use of my old 0.5hp motor ) Specification Power - 0.5 hp / 1440rpm Dia of Housing - 10 inch Dia of fan - 8 inch Width of fan - 25 mm Out Vent Dia - 1 inch Right now Mounting Shaft is gone to friends shop for internal key way hope it will do my work will keep all informed when it will perform
  17. Hi, I'm looking to build a 72 inch vertical forge with minimal volume. Does anyone have any advice on design? My basic plan is to use a steel pipe (8 inch diameter) lined with 2 inches of Kaowool. This will provide a 4 inch diameter mouth that runs the length of the pipe, which will give me enough room to hang longer pieces for a heat treat soak. I'm not looking for forging heat, but definitely need to get thicker steel to critical temperature for heat treat. I'm thinking about using a 3-burner system, evenly spaced along the length of the pipe to try to keep my heat even but I'm concerned that I'll end up with nasty hot spots around the burners. Is there a way to even out the heat better? Is 2 inches of Kaowool enough to provide efficient operation? Any and all advice is welcome! Thanks!
  18. I'm sorry if I put this in the wrong category. Please move this post if it has a better home. I have been thinking about a way to control my airflow better (using a hair dryer at the moment). I was considering several choices, from adding a T valve to adding in a dimmer switch. They would all get the job done but I like to know that when I build or modify something, it will have more than one use. Anyways.. I was watching one of my favorite YouTube people (The King Of Random) and I came across this video And thought that there were others here who would benefit from my find. I plan on building a scariac but your thoughts are always welcome. I hope this was helpful. Happy hitting
  19. Hi, my friends. There is my self made machines for my blacksmith workshop.
  20. Alright... I have finally sourced the last of the materials to build my power hammer. I have had the baseplate, 1 1/2" × 36" disk. Additional base weights, 2 each 2" × 23" disks. The leaf spring. The pillow blocks. Grade 8 bolts. 1/2" plate for supports and such. Pneumatic hoses. Solenoid actuated valve with 1/2" ports. 2" bore x 24" stroke 250psi pneumatic cylinder, etc... The final piece... a 10.25" diameter x 32" piece of round stock... total cost so far is $50.00 for the round stock! Just need to get that 730+ lb. chunk of steel to my house. Now to get my brother and dad to come help me put it together. They are the ones with the welder and welding experience.
  21. I just wanted to share the pics of my homemade adobe lined charcoal forge. I had a wild hair last fall, so put it together then, after becoming disgusted with the cost of propane for my regular dual burner beast. Since I was making one anyway, I could design it to handle longer pieces as I principally forge blades. This unit is handmade, including the hand cranked blower unit. Yes, I just used what was laying around... :D :ph34r: The forge unit is made from an old electric roaster pan, and two steel tv trays which I chopped a side off and set in a 'V' shape and lined with adobe. I know the adobe will crack and flake, but it is easily patched or replaced. No biggie. The tuyere is 1" black pipe, and the air inlet is a 1 1/2" nipple. I designed it so that I can remove the end pipe cap easily for cleaning. Truthfully, if I had to I could line this sucker with ordinary dirt due to my design. Here is my hand cranked blower. As you can see, it is 'V' belt driven with the main drive pulley being an old bicycle rim. I brazed nuts to the rim to attach a handle, and the handle is a bolt covered with loose fitting hard rubber. Believe it or not this unit is all ball bearing construction, as I sunk two bearing races into the wood support for the blower driveshaft. Sitting on the end is a quicky steel reducer cone I made as an adapter from the blower output to the tuyere inlet pipe. I believe the fan itself came from a dryer, but don't quote me on this. I happened to have it on a shelf. The cage is made from an old large popcorn tin I cut down. This unit actually works great, and develops quite a bit of air output for very little cranking effort. I just thought you guys might enjoy this redneck project I threw together.
  22. I finally cracked it with my old linisher that I made, had too many moving parts, which created too much movement and loss of tracking, One one needed to much repair so I built a new one, used the same base and tracking wheel though. Scored a treadmill motor from the side of the road with no electrics, Had to wire in a bridge rectifier from Jay Car to change the AC power from the wall to the DC power required. Had way to much power with out turning it down to I used a voltage regulator to put on some resistance to slow the motor right down, currently using a vacuum cleaner controller to do this will have another one coming in the mail soon that should add more resistance. . Gave it a spin on a 5160 blade and it chewed the metal off very quick with a 40 grit belt. Total cost of this build was $5 for a spring and $20 for the extra electrical components needed. Hope this help anyone who is thinking about making one, as I couldnt find too much instruction on this type of build.
  23. Hey everyone, I'm finally getting to do something I've wanted to do since middle school... Blacksmithing! Like many of you I couldn't afford a great 200# anvil so I decided to build one of my own. I also like the idea of doing this kind of project because it connects me so much better to my work. I've so far designed, cut and rough shaped the anvil and I'll do a little walkthrough of my build, but I am also looking for any advice people can give me for finishing this little beast. I'm lucky that at my work I have access to a scrap piece of 3" steel I was able to use to cut out my blocks. Here I have the blocks roughed out with my colleagues track torch (one of the coolest things, cutting through 3" plate steel like a hot knife through butter). And here they are in all their glory. Can you tell its going to be an anvil yet? About 2 more hours of cutting with the track torch which required very methodical cuts because it can't cut an angled surface, the piece has to be parallel to the track on both planes. I also spend a few minutes cleaning up all the slag with a 4" grinder. And I quickly switched to the 8" grinder, the 4" would have taken probably 4 times as long. This is pretty much the shape I think I want it. I still have to install my hardy hole. For that I'm going to use 1-1/4" square tubing welded inside that rough hole i cut. And that is where I stand today. I'll put my questions and further progess in other posts. First of all, does anyone see any major design flaws in my anvil overall? I know I haven't put in my pritchel hole yet and need to radius at least one of the edges. It is also kind of hard to see from the picture, but the horn is not perfectly conical. It tapers back to more of an oval where it meets the step. Is that going to cause problems? If i try to grind it down to perfectly circular at the step, it will either be a much narrower cone or a much shorter cone. What about the base and the center piece? I cut the center piece a little big (actually accidentally cut the top piece a little small) so you can see it hang out a little on the corners. Do I need to cut the middle piece down to size or would that little oversizing make for a good corner to upsetting/etc? I need to do something to harden the face I know. I have a couple options. I can try to quench the face and even though its mild steel (0.25% C I presume) I theoretically should be able to get up to a 44-46C rockwell. Here is a post of a guy who got in the high 30s/low 40s with mild steel. Would low 40s be hard enough for an anvil face? I know it wouldn't be very deep, but I think if anything that would help with the toughness/rebound/etc. My other option would be to weld a hard face material on it. We have hard facing wire at work, but I'm told it is so hard that it will crack if you hit it with a hammer (maybe because they didn't temper it after welding, I dont' know). Any thoughts? Any other comments people have are welcome, even negative ones. Thanks! And on a side note, anyone know what would happen to the structure of mild steel held at around 700-800 F for about 30-40 years? This steel came from a pot used to oxidize molten lead.
  24. Hello every one. My name is Sheldon and I am new to this site. I am 20 years old and am learning to work with metal as it is a passion of mine. I have almost finished setting up my smithy and the last things i need to do are mount my blower and fix my anvil. My problem with the anvil that I have acquired (for free I might add just so that I don't get told off for getting a kak anvil) is that it has been broken off at the hardy hole leaving about 1cm of the hole on the anvil itself. The rest of the butt has become lost in time as this anvil was part of the Boer war. Back then the English use to break off the butts of the Afrikaners anvils so that they became less useful as you can all imagine. My question to you all is how (if at all) would I be able to make a repair of this? I had an idea of setting up a square tube (10ml walls) the same dimensions as the original hole sunk into my anvil base and then welded to the broken off edge of the anvil. I can do the same next to it for a pritchel hole. My worry is will this rig be strong enough to withstand the beating a normal hardy hole gets? Or will it just sink deeper and deeper into my base eventually breaking off the anvil again. Many thanks and may the metal we forge be of the best. ps. If photos are needed I will post them.
  25. So I decided I wanted to mash on some metal the other day and decided to build myself a forge. I started with the following parts, or rather I ran all over town figuring out how I was going to build this contraption. (1) 4.5 gallon galvanized bucket (1) ten dollar hair dryer (1) 2"d 90° black iron elbow (1) 2"d galvanized pipe cap (1) 2"d x 12" long threaded pipe (1) 2"d aluminum heat riser hose (auto store) (I) bag sand (1) bag Portland cement Foil tape I started by making a hole for the 90° in the center of the bucket. Once that was fit, I drilled "jets" in the pipe cap. I then fitted the two together. Next I screwed in the pipe and used some copper plumbers tape affix it to the bottom of the bucket. After assembling the working parts of the forge I mixed up some dry pack, 5p sand 1p cement, and I firmly tamped it into a dish shape. I then let is sit overnight. In the morning I was ambitious to fire up the forge even though it was still a little wet. I figured this shouldn't be an issue though being how porous drypack is. I connected the hose to the pipe with some foil tape and the attached the hose to the blow dryer. (I later found a lamp dimmer necessary to better control the blower, ymmv) I started a small fire and let it warm up a bit, then started adding coal and heating a piece of rod I had laying around. I think it will end up making a nice poker.