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About RogerrogerD

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    UK, Gloucestershire
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    History, metallurgy, brewing beer, travel.

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  1. Ok, got permission to reproduce the Indian analysis paper. i guess I can just post it as an attachment here? Would that work? Advice appreciated on now to post if its best to do it some other way. Thanks for your comments, slag, got all that and Ive written elsewhere about most of that - see the link I posted earlier.
  2. TP - They have done some sectioning and analysis, details to follow as soon as I get permission to post. Interestingly, Ive just seen that carbon comes out at 0.25- 0.35 % in some rockets and less in others. Other trace elements negligible. The metal is 2- 4mm thick, with an apparent clay coating on the inside. The end caps are apparently hammered on both ends. I hope to meet Dr Williams ar a meeting of the Arms and Armour Society at the Tower of London next week. I’ll try and get permission to post the paper written by the Indian Team.
  3. Thanks Charles, I’ll make sure they keep an eye out for signs of rivetting
  4. Frosty, I too would have put a fold in it, something like this picture attached from a personal experiment, but I’m assured from India that it was not the case, and that their steel was thicker. In my other life, I have written about the development of rockets here, should you be interested. I’ll get permission from India and post some of their finds, which I think are fascinating.
  5. Thanks TP, that’s useful. I have a copy of the Golden age of Rocketry. Indians have found some rockets, and examined them, but cannot find any apparent seam, but they are pretty rusty. From what you say, it’s possible their work simply hammered out the seam. Someone is suggesting the forge welding would have been done at 600 C, (1100F) but that seems a little low to me, for steel 2- 3mm thick...any thoughts? Congreve takes a lot of credit, perhaps too much, and it’s clear the Indians were producing, in quantity, metal cased rockets a decade or two before Congreve, whose contribution was a more formal, repeatable industrial process and consistent propellant My own contribution was highlighting that Irish rebels in 1803 used metal cased rockets against the Brits, (designs provided by the French who got them independently from the Indians..) and one of those rebels ended up working for Congreve... Congreve did have access to captured Indian rockets, but there is little in the archives. Two are in deep storage in a museum in UK and we cant have access. Congreve was very secretive... . But now the Indians have recovered so many rockets (in a well!), they are conducting research. Im meeting one of their team next week, so wanted to check some of the engineering concepts of manufacture.
  6. I’m involved in a historical project looking at how the first metal cased rockets were made in the late 1700s, and I’m interested in drawing on the expertise of the forum. So... if you had to make a cylinder, say 2” or 3” in diameter 12” long, from sheet steel, (wrought, I assume, possibly low carbon), you can roll it into a cylinder but it then needs welding longitudinally. My questions are : 1. Roughly what temperature would be needed? 2. Would you expect to be able to see a seam when you finished or would it all be apparently homogenous? 3. How thin would you be able to get your starting sheet steel? 4. What tools would you use? 5. Any other thoughts on how one might have made significant quantities in India in say 1790? Thanks in anticipation
  7. Looks like a fantastic anvil in fantastic condition. I cant remember seeing one with a round hardie hole. Strange. But not the end of the world. Are you intending to use it or sell it?
  8. Keep looking. I’m in UK and got a 5cwt Brooks for £200....
  9. A bit of BLO on the body as is and use it. No need for anything else. It ain't going to rust away anytime soon and provided it’s not sat in the rain every day you’ll be fine. Edges look a little chewed though..hopefully you can still find some clean edges on it somewhere.
  10. Hi, fellow Brit here. It won’t be cast iron. “Cast iron” is too brittle. It’ll be cast or wrought steel. Looks like a nice anvil. It looks wrought to me, and therefore I would guess quite old. Maybe mid to late 1800s. I’d say the face will be probably forge welded hard steel and in the first pic I sort of see the line at the level of the front table, about 1cm thick. Normal. The texture of the face looks to me like a combination of normal work and some rusting at some stage in its life, giving it a slight stippled effect. The edges look really very good, unusually good for an old anvil... and that’s important, more important than a perfectly smooth top, I’d say. It looks like a great find. In my opinion, use it as it is, no need for anything other than a tree trunk to stand it on.
  11. Looks like burnt carbon steel to me, caused by overheating. Spring steel has highish carbon and more likely to “burn”. Burning can cause “goops” of steel that look like “cottage cheese” to some people I guess. The burning effect will damage steel up the bar beyond the goopy stuff, which is why some is fracturing on you. I’m guessing you were using a coke or coal forge rather than propane which is I think a bit cooler. If you are using a coal/coke forge, maybe get it nice and hot and them turn off or dont blow the air as you stick the steel in. Less oxygen I think you’ll be less likely to cause this effect. Also.. I am forced to have my forge outside, and its tricky to see the colour of the steel in sunlight. So I have burnt lots of steel, as I began blacksmithing. What looks an ok temp to forge in the sun is whitehot in the shade. Are you inside or outside?
  12. Looking carefully at the third picture, it does look to me like a hard steel plate has been properly forge welded on the top, so it doesn't look “fake” to me. Just poor quality body perhaps. A hardy is nice to have, but not essential, perhaps. If you have a use for it, keep it, if not some beginner blacksmith would probably take it off your hands. I think the brand is Australian... if you google back you’ll see an identical anvil with an identical flaw here from 2015, amd reference to an earlier post with again a broken heel on the same brand. Looks like they were simply a poor make.
  13. Aluminium doesn't hammer well. You cant really forge it at all.. Brass will do, but only in certain circumstances and not like steel. Copper work hardens, so you need to anneal frequently and it doesnt really move like steel. Plasticene works on a very basic level to see how metal “moves”. Steel is cheaper than copper and brass, so you dont save anything. Get some scrap steel and get hammering.
  14. Interesting differences. Im in the costwolds and its not my experience round these parts, but I admit to having limited experience. Or I’m mixing with the wrong bunch of sassenachs. ;- )
  15. If you can afford the price and you can move it about easily enough, buy it. It looks like a good anvil and it won’t lose its value. If money or shifting it is an issue then look again. Don’t be embarrassed to have a tool that could outperform your current skill level (if that makes sense).