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the hangman

storage of coal

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There are three main types of ton, so here are the results for all of them:
short ton = 2000 lb
volume = 2000 ÷ 52 = 38.5 cu. ft. per short ton

long ton = 2240 lb
volume = 2240 ÷ 52 = 43.1 cu. ft. per long ton

metric ton = tonne = 1000 kg = 2204.6 lb
volume = 2204.6 ÷ 52 = 42.4 cu. ft. per metric ton

 

 

It would also depend on the type of coal and what size coal, fines vs lump. Did you fill all the voids or just throw it into the box? Lots of variables.

 

I found that a rough estimate for a ton is a pallet about 3 feet deep in coal. 4 x 3.5 x 3 = 48 cu ft and is a good visual as people know what a standard pallet looks like and can measure 3 feet tall.

 

Using lump coal there are a lot of voids and the end result is more like 4 feet tall last time I loaded coal.

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Bulk Density

Type of coal............(lb/ft3)........(g/cc)

 

Coal Anthracity........ 55-60....... 0.88-0.96 
Coal (Granules)....... 52............ 0.83 
Coal (Pulverized) .....38 .............0.61
Coal Bituminous .......52............0.83 
Coal Dust .................35............ 0.56
Coal Powder............ 40............ 0.64
Coal (Powder MRD). 41............ 0.66
Coal (Powdered SRC) 39......... 0.62

-------------------------------------------------------

New reference below

 

TITLE 8: AGRICULTURE AND ANIMALS
CHAPTER I: DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
SUBCHAPTER p: WEIGHTS AND MEASURES
PART 600 WEIGHTS AND MEASURES ACT
SECTION 600.TABLE E WEIGHTS OF COAL PER CUBIC FOOT

 

(Table prepared by U. S. National Institute of Standards and Technology)

Anthracite.........White Ash............Red Ash
Egg...................57.0.....................53.0
Stove.................56.5....................52.5
Nut.....................55.5....................52.0
Pea.....................53.5...................51.0
Buckwheat..........53.0...................50.5

Bituminous
Weights vary from 47 to 55 pounds per cubic foot.
Cubic Feet Per Ton of Coal (Based upon above table).

Bituminous...........White Ash...........Red Ash
Egg......................35.09...................37.73
Stove....................35.59...................38.09
Nut........................36.03...................38.46
Pea......................37.38....................39.21
Buckwheat...........37.73....................39.60

(Source: Amended at 19 Ill. Reg. 8114, effective June 7, 1995)

Reference

 

Egg size coal and lumps are quite different in size and the way it packs.

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Coal measurements and conversions

1 pound = 10,377 Btu
1 pound of coal = 10.948 megajoules
1 short ton (2,000 lbs.) of coal = 20,754,000 Btu
1 short ton = 21,897 megajoules
1 short ton = .907 metric tons
1 metric ton = 22,877,388 Btu
1 metric ton = 24,137 megajoules
1 metric ton = 1.102 short tons
1 barrel oil equivalent = approximately .20 metric tons of hard coal
1 barrel oil equivalent = approximately .41 metric tons of lignite coal
1 metric ton oil equivalent = approximately 1.5
metric tons of hard coal
1 metric ton oil equivalent = approximately 3 metrics tons of lignite coal
1 metric ton hard coal = approximately 5 barrels oil equivalent
1 metric ton hard coal = approximately .67 metric tons of oil equivalent
1 metric ton lignite coal = approximately 2.5 barrels oil equivalent
1 metric ton lignite coal = approximately .33 metric tons of oil equivalent

* Energy contents are expressed as either High (gross) Heating Value (HHV) or Lower (net) Heating Value (LHV). LHV is closest to the actual energy yield in most cases. HHV (including condensation of combustion products) is greater by between 5% (in the case of coal) and 10% (for natural gas), depending mainly on the hydrogen content of the fuel. For most biomass feed-stocks this difference appears to be 6-7%. The appropriateness of using LHV or HHV when comparing fuels, calculating thermal efficiencies, etc. really depends upon the application. For stationary combustion where exhaust gases are cooled before discharging (e.g. power stations), HHV is more appropriate. Where no attempt is made to extract useful work from hot exhaust gases (e.g. motor vehicles), the LHV is more suitable. In practice, many European publications report LHV, whereas North American publications use HHV (Source: Bioenergy Feedstock Network -- https://bioenergy.ornl.gov/) Reference

 

 

This is not blacksmithing coal. Blacksmithing coal is 13,000 to 15,000 BTUs. 

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Railcars of coal burned

The average heat content of coal in 2009 was 27.56 mmbtu per metric ton (EPA 2011). The average carbon coefficient of coal in 2009 was 25.34 kilograms carbon per mmbtu (EPA 2011). The fraction oxidized is 100 percent (IPCC 2006).

Carbon dioxide emissions per ton of coal were determined by multiplying heat content times the carbon coefficient times the fraction oxidized times the ratio of the molecular weight of carbon dioxide to that of carbon (44/12). The amount of coal in an average railcar was assumed to be 100.19 short tons, or 90.89 metric tons (Hancock 2001).

Calculation
Note: Due to rounding, performing the calculations given in the equations below may not return the exact results shown.

27.56 mmbtu/metric ton coal × 25.34 kg C/mmbtu × 44g CO2/12g C × 90.89 metric tons coal/railcar × 1 metric ton/1,000 kg = 232.74 metric tons CO2/railcar

 

 

I found this number to be interesting

The amount of coal in an average railcar was assumed to be 100.19 short tons, or 90.89 metric tons (Hancock 2001).

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How large are U.S. coal reserves?

There are three separate components for U.S. coal reserves.
Recoverable reserves
Demonstrated reserve base
Estimated recoverable reserves

In 2012, the recoverable reserves at producing (active) mines totaled 18,664 million short tons. Recoverable reserves at producing mines represent the quantity of coal that can be recovered (i.e. mined) from existing coal reserves at reporting mines. These reserves essentially reflect the working inventory at producing mines.

For 2012, the demonstrated reserve base was estimated to contain 481,385 million short tons. Demonstrated reserve base is composed of coal resources that have been identified to specified levels of accuracy and may support economic mining under current technologies. It includes publicly-available data on coal that has been mapped and verified to be technologically minable.

In 2012, the estimated recoverable reserves totaled 257,648 million short tons. Estimated recoverable reserves is coal in the demonstrated reserve base considered recoverable after excluding coal estimated to be unavailable due to land use restrictions or currently economically unattractive for mining, and after applying assumed mining recovery rates.

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Coal normally weighs 80 - 85 pounds per cubic foot or converted and rounded off, 145 tons per acre inch. 

Reference

 

From the above reference coal weighs 30-60 pounds per cubic foot.

Lots of variables to consider. This may be the result of coal solid and coal crushed to size.

 

 

A cubical bin for a ton of rice coal (40 pounds/ ft3) made using the rule of thumb would be about 41 inches on each edge. Reference

 

 

1 million BTU of energy = 90 pounds of coal or 11 gallons of propane

 

Yes I do look things up and research for both information and for answers. (grin)

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Tagged for future reference.

 

Thanks there Glenn. I'd seen some of this data, but not all of it, and not all in one place. Much of this might make a good reference thread, if it's not already posted here that way elsewhere.

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Did I mention that coal and steel drums sometimes do not like each other? Especially if water is involved. The drum is up off the ground and on bricks but it rusted from the inside to the outside, not from the bottom up. to be fair, I will admit that it has been stored for several years.

 

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I burn propane for the paying jobs but keep between 500 and 1k pounds of bituminous on hand for fun/historic/just in case jobs.  Outdoor storage in a big plywood box with a waterproof lid.  This year for the first time my coal grew mold.  It's now flecked with a starry night of green pinpoints, it's that almost fluorescent green that some mildew gets.  Odd.  Still burns just fine, but I don't keep any in the shop! (And I wear a quality respirator when shoveling.)

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