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I know at least a couple out there are familiar with spinning wheels for spinning yarn. There isn't much iron on the antiques but the little there is was often forged. I make items for the fiber people and more than occasionally do repairs. The old flyer axles (or mandrels) consist of a shaft and an orifice. The orifice is often wore out, rusted, jagged and paper thin and I often repair the orifice so the remaining shaft can fit back in the original wood. My question is how were the originals forged. Here are a few: These are hard to chuck in a lathe so I made a holder with 2 spiders so I can dial them into center, cut off the old tube, create a shoulder in the area of the collar, then turn and press on a new orifice that I braze. Here is a fixed antique . The forged taper fits right back in the original wood. I ponder how the originals were made. My guess is the smith started with a round shaft, upset the end and hammered out the tapered square section, punched and drift the eye, then add the tube and collar. There is usually some left hand threading about an inch in from the end that may have been single pointed on a treadle lathe? but not sure. The left hand thread keeps the drive pulley from loosening(matching square nut inlayed in wood pulley) The flyers typically ride in oiled leather bearings. One at the orifice end, and one at the far end. The orifice on shafts that are in good condition usually look machined either before (if added separately) or after forging. I would like to make some of these like the originals. I don't think my hammering skills are up to it yet so I'm reaching out for opinions on a method and logical order of making this item. Any thoughts or comments would be greatly appreciated.