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  1. Often called lockjaw, tetanus is a bacterial infection that causes painful muscle spasms and can lead to death. The tetanus vaccine has made tetanus a preventable disease. Thanks to its widespread use, lockjaw has become very rare in the U.S. Even so, many adults in the U.S. need to be vaccinated against tetanus because there is no cure and 10% to 20% of victims will die. You cannot get tetanus from another person. You can get it through a cut or other wound. Tetanus bacteria are commonly present in soil, dust, and manure. The tetanus bacteria can infect a person even through a tiny scratch. But you are more likely to get tetanus through deep punctures from wounds created by nails or knives. The bacteria travel via blood or nerves to the central nervous system. References: WedMD Consult your health care professional if you have questions about tetanus or the vaccine shots.
  2. The time frame is the Carboniferous Period, which spans the period from 360 million years ago to 286 million years ago, about 70 million years before the dinosaurs. The bottom half of this period is known in the U.S. as the Mississippian Period, the top half as the Pennsylvanian Period, and coal formed as the Mississippian Period ended and the Pennsylvanian Period started. If you got NEW coal it might be peat. How peat changes to coal: Pressing the peat down further in the earth gradually changed the material to coal. Scientists estimate that from 1 to 3 meters of plant matter was needed to form 1 meter of coal that we can use for burning to give us different kinds of energy. Coal formation is a process that still goes on. It takes a very long time though for the whole process to take place. Some of our newest coal is a only about one million years old…wow…just a fossil baby!
  3. As I recall the cap is suppose to be 1-1/2 times the chimney diameter above the top of the chimney of the draft is not restricted. I do not recall the relationship of the suggested cap diameter to the chimney diameter. A piece of expanded metal plate formed into a circle will do as the support for the cap. Hardware cloth may work but may need to be replaced on a regular basis. This is if you think it is needed to reduce the flying embers, or to keep rain and critters out.
  4. Depending on the height of the chimney, and the opening at the bottom of the chimney, they can create quite a draft. Light weight material like paper or cardboard can be an issue as the embers are light weight and float up and out of the chimney. Expanded wire mesh can help, as can a chimney cap, both acting as a spark arrestor of sorts. If in doubt, wait until you have some snow on the ground and watch where all the black burned particulate matter lands. You can see it on the ground, or at the end of the next day, the sun can heat up the darker material and melt some of the snow if the black burned particulate matter covering is heavy. Charcoal can produce light weight ash that may go up the chimney as fly ash. Chimneys normally will move the smoke, but not suck the burning coal(s) up and out of the fire pot. (grin)
  5. Suggest that you lower the hood so it has a better chance to collect the smoke, instead of room air.
  6. One bar or a bunch of bars in the same pile?
  7. You may want to look into using posts for support, and pallets make the walls. Make it modular using sections that are 2 pallets tall and one pallet wide. Make the frame strong enough to stand alone and the wall sections are just for decoration. Come time to move, you just pull the pallet sections (walls) and load them into a truck.
  8. Have you tried Scotch Series Super 88, Temperature Range 0 Degrees to 220 Degrees F
  9. Metal screws work as connecting devices for the diameters of thin tin chimney sections to keep the sections from opening back up. Use to connect section to section to make longer lengths that can not come apart later.
  10. As you see, IForgeIron pushes SAFETY so you can have time to learn what is safe to work with and what to avoid. The comment of getting a lunch and a cold drink and reading the site is excellent. We want you to succeed, so tell us what you have done, how it worked out for you, and ask questions, the more specific the question, the better the answer will be. To improve your photography, use a plain, generic background. Cardboard or brown wrapping paper works great. The contrast between the background and the blade makes the blade stand out. And a background hides everything that is not related to the blade. Instantly you get a clean shop, no more clutter on the work table, etc. Just a great photo of your blade.
  11. We have that print that on a shirt. Contact me for advance orders.
  12. The forum is great, it is the soft wear issues that cause problems. And yes I do read the forum. I also reply to direct, off line, contacts. If you have a specific issue, please contact me directly.
  13. Thanks to all who have kept this thread on track and not let it slide into a religious discussion. I appreciate your efforts. Before we go any further, we need to reconsider our choices in a name, and associations with the name. To use Rockstar's example: Your Name (Insert your religion preference here) Blacksmith Does seeing your name and your religious preference in print make a difference? Now think of several different religions and insert each religion into the wording. It takes YOUR religious preference out of the equation and makes the wording generic. Now that we have a (generic religion) blacksmith actually named, would you purchase the same product or do business with that blacksmith just as quickly? Or would you prefer to purchase from, or do business with, the fellow next door wearing an apron and standing beside an anvil, unaware of his religious preferences? We want you to succeed, so we make suggestions. What ever you choose, we will support your decision as it is your choice to make.
  14. CL no need for an apology, as you ask a question and it was answered, by professional blacksmiths, hobby smiths, and those just getting started in blacksmithing. Truly a mix of opinions, which is good. We often forget that IForgeIron is a community visited by over 150 world wide countries each month. We are fortunate to have many professional, and highly experienced individuals on the site. We are also fortunate to have many hobby blacksmiths and newbies that are learning and willing to try different things to see if ti will work for them. These are the folks that will advance to become the next highly advanced blacksmiths, and professional blacksmiths. They pass along good information and encouragement, because they want you to succeed. They speak from the heart AND the hands. Make your best choice, and do not be afraid to change things if it is needed. We wish you the very best. Continue to ask questions and please keep us informed.
  15. Making wooden barrels. Many tools for leverage shown.